Tuesday, February 21, 2006

O Centro Espirita and Charming Betsy

The Supreme Court today rendered an important decision in Gonzalez v. O Centro Espirita concerning religious practices that are in violation of statutory and treaty obligations relating to controlled substances. The discussion of the treaty obligation is quite short:

Before the District Court, the Government also asserted an interest in compliance with the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances …. The Convention, signed by the United States and implemented by the Controlled Substances Act, calls on signatories to prohibit the use of hallucinogens, including DMT. The Government argues that it has a compelling interest in meeting its international obligations by complying with the Convention.

The District Court rejected this interest because it found that the Convention does not cover hoasca…. The court reasoned that hoasca, like the plants from which the tea is made, is sufficiently distinct from DMT itself to fall outside the treaty…

We do not agree. The Convention provides that “a preparation is subject to the same measures of control as psychotropic substance which it contains,” and defines “preparation” as “any solution or mixture, in whatever physical state, containing one or more psychotropic substances.”… Hoasca is a “solution or mixture” containing DMT… [T]he UDV seeks to import and use a tea brewed from plants, not the plants themselves, and the tea plainly qualifies as a “preparation” under the Convention.

The fact that hoasca is covered by the Convention, however, does not authomatically mean that the Government has demonstrated a compelling interest in applying the Controlled Substances Act, which implements the Convention, to the UDV’s sacramental use of the tea. At the present stage, it suffices to observe that the Government did not even submit evidence addressing the international consequences of granting an exemption for the UDV. The Government simply submitted two affidavits by State Department officials attesting to the general importance of honoring international obligations and of maintaining the leadership position of the United States in the international war on drugs…. We do not doubt the validity of these interests, any more than we doubt the general interest in promoting public health and safety by enforcing the Controlled Substances Act, but under RFRA invocation of such general interests, standing alone, is not enough.

This is quite a significant holding, although difficult to apply to other statutes. The case suggests that mere invocation of Charming Betsy is not enough to satisfy the compelling interest requirements under RFRA. RFRA expressly requires the Government to establish a compelling interest and utilize least restrictive means to further that compelling interest. In that context, application of the Charming Betsy doctrine is problematic to apply because reconciliation of the international law obligation is not enough. One does not simply interpret RFRA consistent with international law obligations, one establishes that the statutory burden is satisfied because of international law concerns. Significantly, the Supreme Court did not say that compliance with international law is not a compelling state interest. It simply said that the Government had failed its evidentiary burden of establishing that this particular international obligation met that standard.

Related Links:
Charming Betsy and Psychedelic Tea

7 Comments:

Blogger J&D said...

視訊|影音視訊聊天室|視訊聊天室|視訊交友|視訊聊天|視訊美女|視訊辣妹|免費視訊聊天室

色情遊戲|寄情築園小遊戲|情色文學|一葉情貼圖片區|情人視訊網|辣妹視訊|情色交友|成人論壇|情色論壇|愛情公寓|情色|舊情人|情色貼圖|色情聊天室|色情小說|做愛|做愛影片|性愛|

免費視訊聊天室|aio交友愛情館|愛情公寓|一葉情貼圖片區|情色貼圖|情色文學|色情聊天室|情色小說|情色電影|情色論壇|成人論壇|辣妹視訊|視訊聊天室|情色視訊|免費視訊|免費視訊聊天|視訊交友網|視訊聊天室|視訊美女|視訊交友|視訊交友90739|UT聊天室|聊天室|豆豆聊天室|尋夢園聊天室|聊天室尋夢園|080聊天室|080苗栗人聊天室|女同志聊天室|上班族聊天室|小高聊天室|

AV|AV女優|自慰器|自慰器

視訊|影音視訊聊天室|視訊交友|

網頁設計|網頁設計公司|最新消息|訪客留言|網站導覽

 

7/03/2009 10:34 AM  
Blogger beautifuls said...

buy cheap real madrid jersey cheap Kaka Jerseys real madrid jerseys 2012 Authentic manchester city jersey with high quality.

3/13/2012 1:31 AM  
Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

ninest123 08.11
louboutin, nike free, burberry outlet online, michael kors outlet, burberry, nike outlet, louboutin shoes, ray ban sunglasses, chanel handbags, longchamp outlet, michael kors outlet, nike air max, ray ban sunglasses, tory burch outlet, coach outlet, replica watches, coach purses, polo ralph lauren outlet, michael kors outlet, tiffany jewelry, christian louboutin outlet, coach outlet, michael kors outlet, gucci outlet, prada outlet, longchamp outlet, tiffany and co, longchamp, oakley sunglasses, michael kors outlet, jordan shoes, kate spade handbags, polo ralph lauren outlet, true religion jeans, oakley sunglasses, nike air max, coach factory outlet, louboutin outlet, prada handbags, kate spade outlet, oakley sunglasses, michael kors

8/11/2015 2:45 AM  
Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

new balance pas cher, nike air max, nike roshe run, hollister, michael kors, true religion jeans, north face, true religion jeans, lululemon, sac guess, timberland, longchamp pas cher, ray ban pas cher, sac longchamp, abercrombie and fitch, nike air max, air force, mulberry, burberry, nike free run uk, ray ban uk, lacoste pas cher, north face, ralph lauren uk, michael kors, nike blazer, true religion outlet, oakley pas cher, nike free, hogan, vans pas cher, hermes, air max, nike air max, air jordan pas cher, michael kors, ralph lauren pas cher, hollister pas cher, converse pas cher, tn pas cher, vanessa bruno, louboutin pas cher

8/11/2015 2:49 AM  
Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

birkin bag, lululemon, timberland boots, nfl jerseys, baseball bats, celine handbags, babyliss, chi flat iron, mac cosmetics, nike air max, longchamp, ferragamo shoes, mont blanc, herve leger, insanity workout, vans shoes, ghd, iphone 6 cases, hollister, valentino shoes, hollister, reebok shoes, jimmy choo shoes, nike roshe, nike roshe, soccer jerseys, wedding dresses, mcm handbags, nike huarache, new balance, instyler, giuseppe zanotti, p90x workout, north face outlet, bottega veneta, abercrombie and fitch, north face outlet, oakley, soccer shoes, nike trainers, asics running shoes, beats by dre

8/11/2015 2:51 AM  
Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

birkin bag, lululemon, timberland boots, nfl jerseys, baseball bats, celine handbags, babyliss, chi flat iron, mac cosmetics, nike air max, longchamp, ferragamo shoes, mont blanc, herve leger, insanity workout, vans shoes, ghd, iphone 6 cases, hollister, valentino shoes, hollister, reebok shoes, jimmy choo shoes, nike roshe, nike roshe, soccer jerseys, wedding dresses, mcm handbags, nike huarache, new balance, instyler, giuseppe zanotti, p90x workout, north face outlet, bottega veneta, abercrombie and fitch, north face outlet, oakley, soccer shoes, nike trainers, asics running shoes, beats by dre

8/11/2015 2:51 AM  
Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

hollister, ugg boots uk, thomas sabo, ugg boots, lancel, uggs on sale, karen millen, links of london, ray ban, louboutin, ralph lauren, bottes ugg, converse outlet, ugg boots, replica watches, ugg boots, converse, gucci, toms shoes, hollister, coach outlet, nike air max, juicy couture outlet, ugg boots, ugg,uggs,uggs canada, supra shoes, ugg,ugg australia,ugg italia, vans, swarovski crystal, wedding dresses, swarovski, ugg pas cher, pandora charms, montre pas cher, marc jacobs, juicy couture outlet, pandora charms, pandora jewelry
ninest123 08.11

8/11/2015 2:53 AM  

Post a Comment

<< Home